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Katherine Plantagenet, daughter of King Richard III  

"She had his coloring; each time Richard saw her, it touched him anew. Escaping the flimsy restraints of scarlet silk ribbons, her hair framed her face in flyaway ebony curls; her eyes were wide and dark blue. He wondered if she truly comprehended who he was.” ~The Sunne in Splendour

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The remains of a female ‘vampire’ from 16th-century Venice, buried with a brick in her mouth to prevent her feasting on plague victims.

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history meme: 01/04 presidents rulers | The Two Triumvirates of Rome

T R I U M V I R A T E  (from Latin, “triumvirātus”, a group of three men) is a political regime dominated by three powerful individuals, each a triumvir. In the late Roman Republic, two three-man political alliances existed, two groups who took over the Roman government when they became powerful enough. Jealousy, ambition, and rivalry ultimately caused the end of both of them.

The First Triumvirate (from 60-54 B.C.) was an informal political alliance of Julius Caesar, Pompeius Magnus (“Pompey the Great”) and Marcus Crassus. The arrangement had no legal status, and its purpose was to consolidate the political power of the three and their supporters against the senatorial elite. After the death of Crassus in 53 BC, the two survivors fought a civil war, during which Pompey was killed and Caesar established his sole rule as perpetual dictator.

The Second Triumvirate (created in 43 B.C.) was recognized as a triumvirate at the time. A Lex Titia formalized the rule of Augustus (Gaius Octavian), Mark Antony, and Marcus Aemilius Lepidus. The legal language makes reference to the traditional tresviri. This “three-man commission for restoring the constitution of the republic” in fact was given the power to make or annul law without approval from either the Senate or the people; their judicial decisions were not subject to appeal, and they named magistrates at will. Although the constitutional machinery of the Republic was not irrevocably dismantled by the Lex Titia, in the event it never recovered. Lepidus was sidelined early in the triumvirate, and Antony was eliminated in civil war, leaving Octavian the sole leader.

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history meme: 04/08 objects or places | the Bermuda Triangle

The Bermuda Triangle, also known as the Devil’s Triangle, is an undefined region in the western part of the North Atlantic Ocean, where a number of aircraft and ships are said to have disappeared under mysterious circumstances. The earliest allegation of unusual disappearances appeared in a September 17, 1950 article published in The Miami Herald. Two years later, Fate magazine published a short article covering the loss of several planes and ships, including the loss of Flight 19, a group of five U.S. Navy TBM Avenger bombers on a training mission. Some speculated that unknown and mysterious forces account for the unexplained disappearances, such as extraterrestrials; the influence of the lost continent of Atlantis; and other whimsical ideas.
Some explanations are more grounded in science, if not in evidence. The majority of Atlantic tropical storms and hurricanes pass through the Bermuda Triangle. Also, the Gulf Stream can cause rapid, sometimes violent, changes in weather. Additionally, the large number of islands in the Caribbean Sea creates many areas of shallow water that can be treacherous to ship navigation.
The U.S. Navy and U.S. Coast Guard contend that there are no supernatural explanations for disasters at sea.  Their experience suggests that the combined forces of nature and human fallibility outdo even the most incredulous science fiction.
The ocean has always been a mysterious place to humans, and when foul weather or poor navigation is involved, it can be a very deadly place. This is true all over the world.  There is no evidence that mysterious disappearances occur with any greater frequency in the Bermuda Triangle than in any other large, well-traveled area of the ocean. [more]

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history meme: 03/09 kings/queens | Clovis I

Clovis (c. 466 – c. 511) is considered as the first King of what will become France.
On his 16th birthday, after his father’s death, Clovis became King of the tribe of the Salian Franks but immediately set out to consolidate his position among the other various Frankish tribes. By 486, he had significantly expanded his own kingdom by defeating rival tribes and annexing neighboring domains and principalities. By the age of 21, he was a force to be reckoned with, and he was soon planning even more ambitious projects. In 486, he defeated the last Roman governor of Gaul, and captured his capital at Soissons. By uniting all of the Frankish tribes under one ruler, he changed the form of leadership from a group of royal chieftains to rule by a single king and ensuring that the kingship was passed down to his heirs. He is the founder of the Merovingian dynasty, which ruled for the next two centuries. Because of his conversion to the Roman Catholic faith, France —or the precursor of modern France— became the first nation to enter catholicism (since then, France is known as “the Eldest Daughter of the Church”) and it ensured him of the support of the Catholic Gallo-Roman aristocracy in his later campaign against the Visigoths, which drove them from southern Europe to expand his Kingdom. By the time Clovis died in 511 at the age of 45, his “Holy Roman Empire” encompassed nearly all of modern France and Germany.

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The Palace of Versailles s a royal château in Versailles in the Île-de-France region of France. In French, it is the Château de Versailles.

When the château was built, Versailles was a country village; today, however, it is a wealthy suburb of Paris, some 20 kilometres southwest of the French capital. The court of Versailles was the center of political power in France from 1682, when Louis XIV moved from Paris, until the royal family was forced to return to the capital in October 1789 after the beginning of the French Revolution. Versailles is therefore famous not only as a building, but as a symbol of the system of absolute monarchy of the Ancien Régime.

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History Meme. 4/5 Places → The Natural History Museum, South Kensington, London.

The museum is home to life and earth science specimens comprising some 70 million items within five main collections: botany, entomology, mineralogy, palaeontology and zoology. The museum is a world-renowned centre of research specialising in taxonomy, identification and conservation. Given the age of the institution, many of the collections have great historical as well as scientific value, such as specimens collected by Charles Darwin. The museum is particularly famous for its exhibition of dinosaur skeletons and ornate architecture — sometimes dubbed a cathedral of nature — both exemplified by the large Diplodocus cast which dominates the vaulted central hall. The Natural History Museum Library contains extensive books, journals, manuscripts, and artwork collections linked to the work and research of the scientific departments; access to the library is by appointment only.

Originating from collections within the British Museum, the landmark Alfred Waterhouse building was built and opened by 1881, and later incorporated the Geological Museum. The Darwin Centre is a more recent addition, partly designed as a modern facility for storing the valuable collections.[+more]

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→ Minimalist poster for the late Bourbon monarchs (1643-1792) : Louis XIV, Louis XV, Louis XVI

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܀ history meme ܀ seven dynastiesHouse of Sforza {1447 – 1519/1624} (1/7)

Coming from rural nobility and securing their position as condottieri, Muzio Attendolo took over the duchy of Milan from the Visconti family in 1447 and it became their predominate home and power base (and they also had Pesaro). The Sforza strength lay in their military prowess as well as being active and great patrons of the arts, (da Vinci being at the court of Ludovico), and they produced many influential and powerful men and women.Through alliances and marriage, they created ties to other Italian families (they tended to have good relations with the Medicis who they were similar to) and played vital and critical roles in the shaping of Italian history. The last duke of Milan was in 1519 and the line of Sforza-Cotignola ended in 1624. 

Some notable Sforzas were: Ludovico Sforza, Caterina Sforza, Bona Sforza - Queen of Poland, Cardinal Ascanio Sforza and Bianca Maria Sforza - Holy Roman Empress. 

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CATERINA SFORZA: Caterina, from an early age, distinguished herself by her bold and impetuous actions taken to safeguard her possessions from possible usurpers, and to defend her dominions from attack, when they were involved in political intrigues that were a distinguishing feature of 15th century Italy.

(URL EDIT REQUEST BY: caterinasforza)